Veterinary Internal Medicine: Common Medical Conditions in Pets

Internal medicine experts (internists) specialize in disorders of the gastrointestinal and urinary tract, liver, pancreas, kidneys, lungs, blood, endocrine, respiratory systems, and immune-mediated and infectious diseases. If your pet has complex conditions, a precise diagnosis is elusive, or they are not responding to standard therapies, your primary care veterinarian may recommend you to an internist.

Internists work as an extension of your regular veterinarian’s office, offering access to advanced diagnostic methods and unrivaled therapeutic resources, including referrals to other specialists as needed. An internist collaborates closely with other experts to ensure that each pet benefits from a continuum of care and collaborative and cumulative expertise.

Internal Medicine Conditions

Getting an accurate diagnosis is crucial when you fear your pet is suffering from a severe, chronic illness. An internist can promptly identify your pet’s ailment using advanced diagnostic methods like endoscopy, ultrasonography, and an in-house laboratory. The following health issues can be treated by internal medicine.

Joints or Arthritis Condition (Polyarthritis)

Polyarthritis is a disorder in which dogs exhibit lameness in various joints, but most commonly the wrist, hock, knee, and elbow. The diagnosis is usually made by examining radiographs of the joints to rule out other ailments, extracting joint fluid for examination and culture, and doing blood tests to rule out other diseases that present similarly. Immunosuppressive medicines are used to treat the condition. Contact your veterinarian for more information about internal veterinary medicine.

Liver Disorders

Numerous kinds of liver disease are prevalent in dogs and cats. Portosystemic Vascular Anomalies (PSVA) and Microvascular Dysplasia are two of the most frequent disorders (MVD).

These congenital genetic conditions are more prevalent in tiny dog breeds. PSVA are also found in large breed dogs and, to a lesser extent, in cats. 

PSVA is distinct from MVD in that it involves one or rarely two prominent veins that shunt blood directly through the liver to the heart. In contrast, MVD involves microscopic blood capillaries within the liver. Visit a veterinary website like for more details.

Chronic Hepatitis

Chronic hepatitis is a frequent condition in dogs, characterized by a rise in liver enzyme activity for weeks to months with just a few ambiguous clinical indications in the early stages. This illness is characterized by a chronic inflammatory liver injury frequently mediated by the immune system. It may begin as the primary illness process or result from another disease condition or toxic, pharmacological, or virus exposures.

Feline Hepatic Lipidosis (FHL)

The most frequent acute liver disease in cats results in severe jaundice and the possibility of death without prompt supportive care. FHL is a syndrome triggered by a period of inappetence lasting several days. As a result, numerous main disease processes contribute to FHL and must be handled concurrently with FHL diagnosis and treatment.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease or IBD

Dogs with IBD frequently exhibit diarrhea, weight loss, and even vomiting. Appetite loss, vomiting, weight loss, and diarrhea are all common symptoms of IBD in cats. A biopsy of the intestine by endoscopy or surgery is required for a definite diagnosis.

A small intestine biopsy is required to differentiate small intestinal lymphoma from inflammatory bowel disease properly. Vitamin supplements, prednisolone, and chlorambucil are frequently used in treatment. Cats with small cell lymphoma have a favorable prognosis. Go to a veterinary website to get more info.

Leptospirosis in Dogs

Leptospirosis is a potentially fatal disorder that can lead to renal and liver failure. A thorough history and physical examination, blood and urine testing, and diagnostic imaging, all contribute to the diagnosis.

Frequently, dogs must be hospitalized for an extended period to get intravenous fluids and antibiotics to treat kidney illness. Prognosis is favorable as long as renal function is restored.

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